About this course

NOTE: 

This course is in three parts. There is an examination at the end of each part.

The examination for Part I relates to Part I only. The examination for Part II relates to Parts I and II. The examination for Part III relates to all three parts. 

You may purchase each part individually or purchase a bundle of all three parts together at a discounted price. 

A bundle may not be purchased retrospectively i.e. after you have already purchased one or two Parts. 


This course is designed to meet the regulatory requirements for financial crime risk and compliance training

- front line staff;

- non-customer facing staff who may nevertheless come into possession of information

- managers, directors, owners and compliance / risk / internal audit staff. 

- regulators, prosecutors, judges

- legislative and regulatory draftsmen.


This course also helps providers of services to identify criminal activities committed against clients and companies.

Language: English

Time limit: Unlimited access for 12 months from enrolment.

Certificate: yes, valid 12 months from date of examination.

Retake examination: yes.

Senior courses are part of the Learning Ladder (tm) Series and attract Course Credits for those who go on to study for the Certificate in Financial Crime Risk and Compliance.

CPE/CPD - yes, if your examination body / regulator acknowledges this course

CPE/CPD hours : 6, where acknowledged.

cFCRC points: 40.


Bundle: ALL THREE MODULES FOR GBP240.00.




Some in clandestine companies combine;
Erect new stocks to trade beyond the line;
With air and empty names beguile the town,
And raise new credits first, then cry ’em down;
Divide the empty nothing into shares,
And set the crowd together by the ears.

Daniel Defoe.


This course is for all those who work in, manage, own or control companies in all jurisdictions and those that deal with and regulate them. 


Business structures, including corporations and partnerships, are intended to encourage enterprise and to protect honest entrepreneurs. 

Trusts are intended to protect the assets of families from unlawful interference and other problems.

In each case there is also a measure of the modification of the tax position as against if such structures were not to be used: some of those changes benefit the company and its owners and others benefit the state.

However, as with all things, there are those that abuse the privileges that such structures afford them. They are used as vehicles for a wide range of criminal offences of which the most obvious – but far from the only – one is tax evasion.

Also, because these structures have an identity (in some cases they are, in law, a person), they are also the target for criminals. 

In this course, we explain

a) what corporations, partnerships, trusts and other structures are

b) the terminology associated with them

c) the risks they present

d) the risks they face

and we do it all with context and historical perspective.

You will find out about asset forfeiture in 18th Century England, how capital flight was dealt with in 18th Century France – and see how much of what we imagine is recent has a long history. 

You will learn the origins of trust law and why it is a cross-cultural phænomenon.

Also, you will learn why much of the criticism of certain professionals is unfounded – and where that criticism should be directed. 

This is a three part course. See the curriculum below for the contents of this Part.

At the end of each part, you will take an open book examination. The examinations are cumulative and cover the current and previous parts. If you achieve the pass-mark of 80%, you will receive a certificate and points towards the designation Certificate in Financial Crime Risk and Compliance. 

The entire three-part course is approximately the length of a two-day seminar but it is, of course, on demand. You have unlimited access, including any additions and updates, for 12 months and unlimited attempts at the examination. Your certificate for this course lasts for a year from the date of issue.



Curriculum Part One

  • 1

    About Essentials: Corporate vehicles, Trusts and other structures. Part I (prerequisite reading)

    • About this course

    • Status of this course

    • Caveat and Legal

    • Pre-requisite

  • 2

    1. What is......

    • 1.1. 1 What is a company? 1

    • 1.1.2 What is a company? 2

    • 1.1.3 What is a company? 3

    • 1.2.1 What is a partnership? 1

    • 1.2.2 What is a partnership? 2

    • 1.2.3 What is a partnership 3

    • 1.3 What is a joint venture?

    • 1.4 What is a European ″earwig″?

    • 1.5 What are Limited Partnerships, Limited Liability Partnerships and Scottish Partnerships?

    • 1.6 What is a sole trader?

    • 1.7 What is a charity, NGO or foundation?

    • 1.8 What is an association or society?

    • 1.9.1 What is a Community Interest Company? 1

    • 1.9.2 What is a Community Interest Company 2

    • 1.10.1 What is a trust? 1

    • 1.10.2 What is a trust? 2

    • 1.10.3 What is a trust? 3

    • 1.11.1 What is a ″juridical person″? 1

    • 1.11.2 What is a ″juridical person″? 2

    • 1.11.3 What is a ″juridical person″? 3

    • 1.12 What is ″domicile″?

    • 1.13.1 What is a shelf company″? 1

    • 1.13.2 What is a shelf company″? 2

    • 1.14 What is a ″shell company″?

    • 1.15 What is a ″cell company″?

    • 1.16 What is an ″unregistered" company?

    • 1.17 What is a ″blank cheque″ (check) company? (includes SPACs)

    • 1.18 What is a director?

    • 1.19 What is a nominee director?

    • 1.20 What is a shadow director?

    • 1.21 What is an executive director?

    • 1.22 What is a non-executive director?

    • 1.23 What is a share in a company?

    • 1.24 What is a shareholder?

    • 1.25 What is a resolution?

    • 1.26 What is a controlling interest in a company?

    • 1.27 What is a debenture or bond holder?

    • 1.28 What is a personal guarantee?

    • 1.29 What is an ″ultimate beneficial owner″?

    • 1.30 What is an offer to subscribe?

    • 1.31.1 What is a stock exchange? 1

    • 1.31.2 What is a stock exchange 2

    • 1.32 What is in a name?

    • 1.33 What is transfer pricing?

    • 1.34 What is a royalty payment?

    • 1.35 What is a trade name?

    • 1.36 What is a ″trade mark″?

    • 1.37 What is a franchise?

    • 1.38 What is market abuse?

    • 1.39 What is a third-party guarantee?

    • 1.40 What is a company secretary?

    • 1.41 What is a registered office?

    • 1.42 What is a bank?

    • 1.43 What is an ″International Business Corporation"?

  • 3

    2. Legal Capacity and Liability

    • 2.1 Legal Personality and capacity

    • 2.2 Establishing legal capacity and why it’s important.

    • 2.3.1 Actual, implied and apparent authority.

    • 2.3.2 Actual, implied and apparent authority.

    • 2.4 To the extent that the customer is extant…

    • 2.5.1 The simple, private, company structure 1

    • 2.5.2 The simple, private, company structure 2

    • 2.6.1 The structure of partnerships.

    • 2.6.2 Defining a partnership.

    • 2.7 Every partner can bind the partnership.

    • 2.8.1 The criminal liability of partnerships.

    • 2.8.2 The criminal liability of partnerships.

    • 2.8.3 The criminal liability of partnerships.

    • 2.8.4 The criminal liability of partnerships.

    • 2.9.1 The structure of trusts

    • 2.9.2 The structure of trusts

    • 2.9.3 The structure of trusts

    • 2.10 The criminal liability of trusts

    • 2.11 Companies and liabilities.

  • 4

    3. The criminal liability of companies

    • 3.1 Making companies criminally liable.

    • 3.2 Making companies criminally liable.

    • 3.3 Failing to prevent criminal conduct

    • 3.4 Failing to prevent criminal conduct

    • 3.5 Failing to prevent criminal conduct

    • 3.6 Failing to prevent criminal conduct

    • 3.7 Failing to prevent criminal conduct

    • 3.8 Failing to prevent criminal conduct

    • 3.9 Lessons from the Airbus/AirAsia/Lotus-Caterham part of the Airbus settlement.

    • 3.10 Failing to prevent criminal conduct v committing criminal conduct

  • 5

    4. Failure to prevent criminal conduct Canada-style.

    • 4.1 Canada’s radical approach to criminal liability of organisations.

    • 4.2 Canada’s radical approach to requirement to prevent criminal conduct in organisations.

  • 6

    5. When to conduct KYC (a.k.a. ″due diligence″).

    • 5.1 In the beginning – but when is the beginning?

    • 5.2 and in the middle and at the end.

    • 5.3 The FATF shoots itself – and you – in the foot.

  • 7

    Examination

    • About Examination

    • Examination - Financial crime risks of corporate vehicles and other business structures.